Decision Support Systems Glossary
by D. J. Power
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- Case-based reasoning (CBR)
- An intelligent-systems method that helps support processes such as diagnosis, scheduling and design. A case-based reasoner works by matching new problems to "cases" from a historical database and then displaying successful solutions. CBR has been used in applications like customer support, quality assurance, aircraft maintenance and process planning (cf., Watson, 1997).
- Client/server architecture
- A network architecture in which computers on a network act as a server managing files and network services OR as a client where users run applications and access servers. Clients rely on servers for resources like web pages, data, files, printing and OLAP. For more information, please see the client/server FAQ at http://www.abs.net/~lloyd/csfaq.txt.
- Cognitive Overload
- A psychological phenomenon characterized by an overload of information for a decision maker. The amount of information exceeds the person's cognitive capacity. DSS can reduce or increase cognitive overload.
- Communications-Driven DSS
- A Decision Support Systems that uses network and communications technologies to facilitate collaboration and communication. The communications technologies is central to supporting decision-making. Technologies include: LANs, WANs, Internet, ISDN, Virtual Private Networks. Tools used include groupware, Videoconferencing, Bulletin Boards.
- Computer-Mediated Communication
- The use of computers to create, store, deliver, and process communications.
- Computer Supported Cooperative Work
- This term refers to the use of computers to support cooperative work among multiple participants (for example, collaborative authoring), as distinct from work that may not be cooperative.
- Conferencing, Videoconferencing or Teleconferencing
- Real-time, two-way communications. Conferencing is audio-video telecommunication support of simultaneous interactions among participants involving conference calls or videoconferencing.
- Controllable Variables
- Decision variables that can be changed and manipulated by a decision maker, such as quantity to produce, amount of resources to allocate, etc.
- Corporate Planning System
- A decision support system that holds and derives knowledge relevant to planning decisions that cut across organizational units and involve all of an organization's functions including., its operations, finance, marketing, and human resources functions.
- Cost/Benefit Analysis
- This analysis addresses the allocation of capital. Cost-Benefit Analysis is a systematic, quantitative method for assessing the life cycle costs and benefits of competing alternatives. One identifies both tangible and intangible costs and benefits. Typical measures in Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) are return on investment (ROI), net present value (NPV), and discounted cash flow.
- Critical Success Factors
- Key areas of business activity in which favorable results are necessary for a company to reach its goals.