The growing acceptance of TCP/IP is due to several factors. First, TCP/IP has been used since the early 1970's. Second, in the early 1980's it was distributed as a core part of Berkeley's UNIX Version 4.2 and UNIX workstations became primary servers on the Internet. TCP/IP was initially successful in the mid-80ís because it delivered a few basic services that many users needed (file transfer, electronic mail, remote logon) across a very large number of client and server systems. Several computers in a small department can use TCP/IP (along with other protocols) on a single LAN. The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise network, then to regional networks, and finally to the global Internet.
Third, TCP/IP is dependable. On the battlefield a communications network can be damaged, so DARPA researchers designed TCP/IP to be robust and to automatically recover from any node or phone line failure. This modular design allows the construction of very large networks with less central management. Because of its proven capabilities over Internets, its wide availability, and support for routing, it has become an accepted standard for interconnecting heterogeneous environments from multiple vendors. Fourth, when organizations use TCP/IP as their protocol stack, they can choose to use it exclusively over their own private intranet or as part of the global Internet.
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